Hopefully someone pins this as there are dozens of threads of people with this problem....
Symptom. You download Astroneer from the Microsoft store to your Win 10 pc, launch the game, and then there is no menu. You are stuck floating on a spaceship with nothing to do. Here is a Youtube of this created by someone with the problem:
Resolution: The Microsoft install of this game is very different from the Steam version and requires connectivity to their Xbox Live service for the game to work properly. *UGH*
1) Go to settings and search for "xbox live settings" once there go to the xbox networking tab.
2) It will scan and show the connection status for xbox live, and if it comes back as not connected, or unqualified, or any other down state.... Astroneer will leave you stuck floating in space when you launch it as the youtube video shows.
3) If you get xbox networking working then launch astroneer a cut scene and a menu will appear about 5 seconds after that spaceship in the video appears.
This said, getting the xbox networking to work can be a real mess of conflicting info. Microsoft's documentation and advice from their forum workers is conflicting and often outdated.
The first things are to check are the obvious. Is your computer on the internet and the internet is up. Do you have a firewall setting that might be blocking the service. If not then your goal is to find out if Teredo is working. Teredo is the back end technology that allows Xbox live on win 10 to work and its a pretty temperamental piece of tech. The advice in these two web pages helped me get teredo and thus xbox live networking on line:
Hope this helps, Happy Astroneering.