Sadly no, however there are two alternatives to purchasing the game on Steam.
1) Xbox One store
2) Microsoft store... this is the PC version of the game (Windows 10). Note: Do not go to the Microsoft store website, instead use the Microsoft Store app on your computer's Start Menu.
Both of these options have a built in feature called Play Anywhere. https://www.xbox.com/en-US/games/xbox-play-anywhere
While Astroneer does support multiplayer, be aware: Steam players can only play with other Steam players. Xbox players can only play with other Xbox players, AND with other Microsoft Store players. Steam players can NOT play with Xbox or Microsoft Store players.