So I fixed my problem, apparently my windows system didn’t update with daylight saving time automatically. once I updated windows to auto update with daylight saving and forced a time update the game started fine. maybe there is a check in the startup of astroneer that causes it to crash with an incorrect system clock? Not sure if this will fix OPs issue but it did fix mine.
Same, been playing on a save for a little over a week...landed o Atrox and then the game crashed. Now when i try to start the game I get the blackscreen with astroneer background then crashes straight back to windows. Windows 10 Version via GamePass. other Games in GamePass work just fine. Windows updated, gpu drivers updated, rebooted, clean reboot, nothing works.